Gender based violence has been going on for tool long and no matter what work has been done to challenge this, in gtained attitudes and beliefs take a long time to change. Education from pre–school on has to take some responsibility for developing healthy attitudes for the next generation and to break into intergenerational violence.
INEE has brought our attention to the 16 days of activism to try to achieve another step forward.
Gender-based violence is a human rights violation that impacts individual well-being and empowerment and leads to a myriad of social problems. Worldwide, up to one in five women and one in 10 men report experiencing sexual abuse as children; children subjected to sexual abuse are much more likely to encounter other forms of abuse later in life. Violence against women particularly negatively impacts girls’ access to education. According to the EFA Global Monitoring Report on Gender and Education for All, gender-based violence is a major reason for underachievement and high dropout rates of girls from school, perpetuating the gender gap.
Each year groups around the world join together to speak out against gender violence during the 16 Days of Activism Against Gender Violence campaign. Starting with The International Day to End Violence Against Women (November 25) until International Human Rights Day (December 10), people come together to try to end the violence that takes place against girls and women. This year, the theme of the 16 Days of Activism, is one of empowerment: Commit. Act. Demand. We CAN End Violence Against Women.
Safe, quality education is key to ending violence against girls and women, boys and men
According to the Brussels Working Group on Violence against Women in Conflict, violence or the threat of violence in or around schools can prevent girls and young women from attending school and female teachers from doing their job. Boys and men can also become targets of gender-based violence, particularly in conflict-affected contexts where abduction and recruitment into armed forces can be a major risk. The types of violence male and female learners in crisis contexts may experience include verbal abuse, bullying, humiliation, stigmatization, corporal punishment, physical or sexual assault, sexual harassment, rape and abduction.
Safe learning environments that offer protection to both student and teachers are a critical component of quality education. Through quality, inclusive education, learners come to know and understand their rights in order to lead lives free of sexual violence and abuse. The education sector can also play an integral role in sensitizing communities to end gender based violence.
Education is an important protection measure during all phases of crises:
- When creating safe spaces and “zones of peace,” education plays an important role in physical and psychosocial protection. The normality and routine provided by daily schooling is a stabilising and crucial factor for children and young people’s development.
- Deployment and retention of female teachers can enhance protection, as female teachers are often seen as contributing to greater security for girls in school.
- Schools are effective sites for education on such issues as HIV/AIDS, landmines, human rights, tolerance, and non-violent conflict resolution, and can educate learners on how to access health and social support resources, particularly if sexual violence has occurred.
- Education may contribute to positively altering social dynamics when curricula and textbooks are free of abusive and sexist messages, and display girls and boys, women and men as equally valued and active.
Download the INEE Pocket Guide to Gender, which outlines useful principles for a gender-responsive approach to guide all education programming, provides responses to some of the most common misconceptions and arguments against gender mainstreaming in the education sector and gives concrete strategies for ensuring gender-responsive programming across all domains of an education response.
Download the INEE Thematic Guide on Gender-Base Violence, a collection of practical tools and resources from the INEE Minimum Standards Toolkit. This includes a Strategy Sheet on Preventing and Responding to Gender Based Violence In and Through Education.
Join the INEE Gender Task Team
Read and share two relevant blog posts in which author, Siobhàn Foran, GenCap Advisor for Global Clusters, discusses issues of gender and gender based violence in education:
- Addressing the problem of sexual relations between teachers and students in Kenyan schools (Originally posted on UNICEF’s website Back on Track: Rebuilding Education, Rebuilding Societies)
- Has ‘gender’ become just another word for ‘girls’? (Posted on INEE’s blog.)
and some more related resources:
The INEE Pocket Guide to Gender complements the INEE Minimum Standards for Education and the IASC Gender Handbook, listed below, and is intended for anyone working to provide, manage, or support gender-responsive education services as part of emergency preparedness, response or recovery.
In the rush to provide humanitarian response when a disaster hits or a conflict erupts, the appeal to “pay attention to gender issues” often falls on deaf ears and may seem irrelevant. It is not. “Paying attention to gender issues” or putting on a “gender lens” quite simply means recognizing the different needs, capacities and contributions of women, girls, boys and men. Ignoring or being blind to these different needs can have serious implications for the protection and survival of people caught up in humanitarian crises. This Handbook sets forth standards for the integration of gender issues from the outset of a new complex emergency or disaster, so that humanitarian services provided neither exacerbate nor inadvertently put people at risk; reach their target audience; and have maximum positive impact.
The handbook is available in Arabic, English French, Russian and Spanish, and can be down-loaded from the right-hand column on the IASC Gender front page.
Education Module of the IASC Gender E-Learning Tool
The IASC Gender Sub-Working Group (SWG) on Gender and Humanitarian Action, in collaboration with InterAction, has developed an e-learning course to help humanitarian workers mainstream gender strategies into their work. This course is based on the IASC Gender Handbook (listed above) and provides illustrative examples to help you learn how to develop programming that ensures the needs and capacities of women, girls, boys and men are met in humanitarian situations.
The INEE Gender Task Team advocated to ensure that an Education section was included in this e-tool and then supported the development of the Education Section of the course.
Produced By: UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for Education, Bangkok
This Toolkit integrates existing information and tools designed by other national or international organizations dedicated to promoting and providing training on gender equality in education and other sectors. Further information from these sources is obtained by consulting the references section at the end of the Toolkit.
The Toolkit is designed as a user-friendly resource. As such, a matrix is provided on to indicate each tool’s potential for use, based on its relevance to each prospective user group. Still, every tool will have relevance to many contexts or situations and, it is therefore encourage to make use of all the materials by adapting them to a specific country context.
Training Package: Gender and Education in Emergencies and Post-Crisis Recovery
Produced by IRC on behalf of the INEE Gender Task Team
The IRC has developed a training package based on Gender Task Team trainings carried out in 2008. The training package features:
- Facilitators’ Guide
- Training Session Power Points
- Handouts and Background Resources
- Existing gender frameworks, tools and strategies
- Links to INEE Minimum Standards, Sphere Minimum Standards and IASC Guidelines
The full package is available online here. To request a CD-Rom email firstname.lastname@example.org with your full mailing address and the number of copies required. Download a flyer with more information about the training here.
Working with young women; empowerment, rights and health
Authors: Ricardo,C.; et,al; Produced by: Instituto PROMUNDO
This manual, part of an initiative called Program M, includes a series of group educational activities to promote young women’s awareness about gender inequities, rights and health. It also seeks to develop their skills to feel more capable of acting in empowered ways in different spheres of their lives.
All of the activities draw on an experiential learning model in which young women are encouraged to question and analyse their own experiences and lives, in order to understand how gender can perpetuate unequal power in relationships, and make both young women and men vulnerable to sexual and reproductive health problems, including HIV/AIDS. The activities engage young women to share ideas and opinions and think about how they can make positive changes in their lives and communities.
Engaging Boys and Men in GBV Prevention and Reproductive Health in Conflict and Emergency-Response Settings – A Workshop Module
Authors: CARE/EngenderHealth, Produced by: USAID and The Archive Project
This is a training guide for a two-day skill-building workshop to introduce participants to the topic of engaging boys and men in reproductive health in conflict and emergency-response settings. The module includes a facilitator’s guide, handouts, slides for presentations, and participant resources for additional reading. The module is intended for personnel working in conflict and other emergency-response settings who are interested in engaging boys and men in gender-based violence prevention and reproductive health. It is appropriate for staff that have had some training in gender, gender-based violence prevention, and reproductive health.
USAID’s Student, Community Counselor and Teacher Programs to Reduce Gender-Based Violence in Schools
SafeSchools Program, USAID
USAID’s Office of Women in Development is pleased to announce the release of the Doorways training manuals. The manuals, developed under the USAID-funded Safe Schools Program, were designed to make classrooms safer and more conducive environments for student retention and learning. The set of manuals can be integrated into existing programs for teacher training, Parent Teacher Association strengthening, scholarships, support to orphans and vulnerable children, and HIV prevention education or as part of a comprehensive national or local plan to reduce gender-based violence against children. Piloted in Ghanaand Malawi, students (ages 10-14) and adults who participated in the programs demonstrated positive changes in attitudes and knowledge concerning gender-based violence. The manuals and accompanying resource booklets can be found here:
Prepared for the INEE Gender Task Team by Haviva Kohl
This annotated bibliography was produced for the INEE Gender Task Team under the help and guidance of Jackie Kirk. This product was framed in the context of Education in Displacement -Providing Access, Building Systems, a course taught by Sarah Dryden-Peterson at Harvard’s Graduate School of Education that focuses on education in conflict zones, highlighting the plight of refugee and internally-displaced children. The selection of this annotated bibliography came from the need to understand the complexity of vulnerabilities amongst women and girls in refugee and internally- displaced camps. The goal of this product is to serve as a resource for the INEE Gender Task Team in their work in the field of gender and displacement.