The Convention on the Rights of the Child – 25 years on

The Convention on the Rights of the Child – 25 years on

Different perspectives on the need to underline the promises made to children everywhere – and take action!

The Convention on the Rights of the Child represents a remarkable milestone in the journey to build a more just world: it is the first international instrument to articulate the entire complement of rights relevant to children – economic, social, cultural, civil and political. It is also the first international instrument to explicitly recognize children as active holders of their own rights.

The importance of the Convention was recognized from the outset and it quickly became the most rapidly and widely ratified human rights treaty in history. The Convention has now been ratified by 194 States.Its almost universal ratification shows an unparalleled level of agreement among the world’s nations: That children must receive the treatment and respect to which they have an innate and immutable right.

The Convention offers a vision of a world in which children have a healthy start in life and are educated and protected, a world in which their views are respected and they can develop their full physical and mental potential. its guiding principles – non-discrimination; the best interests of the child; the right to life, survival and development; and respect for the views of the child – have had a profound influence on how children are treated and regarded the world over.


The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most rapidly and widely ratified international human rights treaty in history.

The Convention changed the way children are viewed and treated – i.e., as human beings with a distinct set of rights instead of as passive objects of care and charity.

The unprecedented acceptance of the Convention clearly shows a wide global commitment to advancing children’s rights.

There is much to celebrate as we mark the 25th anniversary of the Convention, from declining infant mortality to rising school enrolment, but this historic milestone must also serve as an urgent reminder that much remains to be done. Too many children still do not enjoy their full rights on par with their peers.

Business as usual is not enough to make the vision of the Convention a reality for all children. The world needs new ideas and approaches, and the Convention must become a guiding document for every human being in every nation.

Twenty-five years ago, world leaders were united behind a common vision: to promote and protect the rights of all children.

The adoption of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child was a landmark moment: For the first time, children were recognized as the holders of a unique set of rights — education, leisure, participate in society, health and protection.

We’ve come a long way in those 25 years. For example, the number of children under the age of 5 that die each year from preventable causes has almost halved globally, and almost 50 million more children are in school. Yet the fact remains that we are a long way from realizing the vision set out in the CDC. Children’s rights are still violated daily, in the European Union and globally. Today, 57 million children are still unable to go to school and 250 million children are either out of school or not learning. Up to 1.5 billion children experience violence annually. Almost 27 million European children are at risk of poverty or social exclusion.

While the EU has played its part in the progress made, it must also accept responsibility for the gaps which remain. Too often, despite promises on paper, Brussels has failed to live up to its commitments to children. The current Human Rights Strategic Framework and accompanying Action Plan, for example, is a case in point. While this had the potential to make a positive and lasting difference to the lives of children around the world, many of the proposed actions — such as the campaign aimed at eliminating violence against children — were never implemented.

On the 25th anniversary of the CRC, we want more EU action on these three topics to fulfil the bloc’s commitments to children:

1. Develop a strategic and comprehensive human rights framework. The protection of children’s rights is an explicit objective in the EU’s internal and external action thanks to theLisbon Treaty, and the new EU leadership has a golden opportunity to address previous shortcomings and realize the bloc’s objectives in this area. The newly appointed European Commission must actively develop a comprehensive vision for the future of the EU’s policies and legislation that will impact on children within and outside of Europe. It must do this through tools such as Policy Coherence for Development, as well as through specific policies on children’s rights. The European Commission and European External Action Service must therefore strive to deliver a much more strategic and comprehensive human rights framework when it is renewed in 2015. Crucially, there must be concerted action by EU delegations to implement the framework.

2. Ensure adequate and sustained investment in children’s rights. This must be backed up by adequate, sustained investment in programs which take a holistic approach to promoting children’s rights. Through the “child well-being” budget line in the 2014-2020 Development Cooperation Instrument, the EU has the ability to do precisely this. Working in concert with other budget lines affecting children, such as those covering health, education and gender equality, the EU has the means necessary to ensure the rights enshrined in the CRC are fulfilled.

3. Emphasize participation, equality, inclusion and accountability post-2015. Globally, the EU must push for a post-2015 framework that places the rights and the well-being of children at its center, with a strong emphasis on participation, equality, inclusion and accountability. Given the universality of the future framework and its wide scope in covering social, economic, environmental and governance issues — all of which are critical for children — the EU must ensure that the goals and targets are both ambitious enough and relevant for implementation internally in the EU as well as externally. Sustained and long-term action is required for all children to claim their rights. Investing in the survival, development, protection and participation of all girls and boys is essential for the promotion of sustainable development, the fulfilment of human rights, and addressing structural inequalities and intergenerational poverty.

As the EU’s new leaders take over the reins, they must push for children’s rights to be mainstreamed throughout all the bloc’s development work. Change requires action, and action requires political will and real investment. Good intentions are not enough. The EU should play its part in making the promises of the CRC a reality for all children.

By Alexandra Makaroff, Ester Asin Martinez, Deirdre de Burca 20 November 2014.

In addition to the authors and their organizations, this article is also co-signed by the Alliance for Childhood European Network Group, Eurochild, Missing Children Europe, PICUM and SOS Children’s Villages.

And how the CRC is progressing:

Three optional protocols to the Convention have been adopted by the General Assembly. The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography was adopted on 25 May 2000 and came into force on 18 January 2002. It requires States parties to prohibit the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography. The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the involvement of children in armed conflict was also adopted on 25 May 2000 and came into force on 12 February 2002. It requires States parties to take all feasible measures to ensure that children do not take a direct part in hostilities. The Optional Protocol to the Convention on a communications procedure was adopted on 19 December 2011 and provides a mechanism for the submission of communications by or on behalf of an individual or group claiming to be victims of a violation of the Convention. Communications submitted under this Optional Protocol are received and considered by the Committee on the Rights of the Child, which was established under the Convention. This Optional Protocol has not yet entered into force.


CRIN reminds us of the many conflicts in which children’s rights are certainly not protected or promoted.

This week marks the 25th anniversary of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). To mark that event, this special issue of the Children and Armed Conflict CRINmail draws attention to conflicts and issues affecting children in conflict that have slipped out of our consciousness or never made it there in the first place.

In times of armed conflict, children’s rights are violated in horrific ways: they are killed and maimed, abducted, recruited to fight, and experience sexual violence and attacks on their daily lives.

According to the 1996 UN report on the ‘Impact of Armed Conflict on Children’, prepared by Graça Machel, “in recent decades, the proportion of war victims who are civilians has leaped dramatically from five per cent to over 90 per cent.“

Hundreds of children are dying, with many more injured and displaced, while those responsible escape with impunity. Perpetrators of violations of children’s rights in times of armed conflict must be prosecuted to ensure victims obtain justice and reparation.

Information is a powerful – and necessary – tool for conveying the horrors of warfare, understanding the impact of conflict on different population groups, gathering evidence on possible rights violations and eventually securing accountability.

World Day Against Child Labour – 12th June

World Day Against Child Labour – 12th June

“This year’s World Day against Child Labour puts the spotlight on the plight of 115 million children involved in hazardous work – more than half of the estimated 215 million child labourers in the world. … It is unacceptable that economic growth and development should permit complacency or resignation about child labour or be premised on the expendability of the lives of the most vulnerable.”

Juan Somavia  Director-General of the International Labour Organization
Message for World Day Against Child Labour, 12 June 2011

The International Labour Organization (ILO) launched the World Day Against Child Labour in 2002 to focus attention on the global extent of child labour and the action and efforts needed to eliminate it. Each year on 12 June, the World Day brings together governments, employers and workers organizations, civil society, as well as millions of people from around the world to highlight the plight of child labourers and what can be done to help them.

The ILO’s adoption of Convention No. 182 in 1999 consolidated the global consensus on child labour elimination. Millions of child labourers have benefited from the Convention, but much remains to be done. The latest figures estimated that 215 million children are trapped in child labour, and 115 million of these children are in hazardous work. The ILO’s member states have set the target for eliminating the Worst Forms of Child Labour by 2016. To achieve this goal requires a major scaling up of effort and commitment.

A future without child labour is at last within reach. Significant progress is being made worldwide in combating child labour. The new global estimates of trends reinforce this message of hope. However, a strong and sustained global movement is needed to provide the extra push towards eliminating the scourge of child labour. This is no time for complacency.


Concerning child labour, the ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138) requires States to specify in law a minimum age for admission to employment not less than the age of finishing compulsory education, and which in any case, should not be less than 15 years. A member country whose economy and educational facilities are insufficiently developed may under certain conditions initially specify a minimum age of 14 years.2

The ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182) calls for “immediate and effective measures to secure the prohibition of the worst forms of child labour as a matter of urgency”. The worst forms are defined as:

  • All forms of slavery, or practices similar to slavery, such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage and serfdom, as well as forced labour, including forced or compulsory labour, including forced or compulsory recruitment of children for use in armed conflict.
  • The use, procurement or offering of a child for prostitution, for the production of pornography or for pornographic performances.
  • The use, procurement or offering of a child for illicit activities, in particular for the production and trafficking of drugs as defined in relevant international treaties.
  • Work which, by its nature or circumstances in which it is carried out, is likely to harm the health, safety or morals of children, such harmful work to be determined by national authorities.

Other key international standards and declarations

Over the years, growing awareness of the need to ensure that children receive education and protection has spurred the development of a body of international standards to help guide governments in enacting domestic legislation.

The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights features the right to education prominently stating that “Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available…”

There is near universal ratification of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Convention states that children have the right to be protected from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development. It also states that primary education should be compulsory and available free to all and encourages the development of different forms of secondary education available and accessible to every child. The United Nations General Assembly has also adopted two Optional Protocols to the Convention to increase the protection of children from involvement in armed conflicts and from sexual exploitation.3

The importance of protecting fundamental principles and rights at work during the ongoing global financial and jobs crisis was reflected in the communiqué of the G20 Summit held in November 2011 which encouraged the ILO to continue promoting ratification and implementation of the core Conventions ensuring fundamental principles and rights at work.

Ratification and implementation of ILO Conventions on child labour

Although the ILO’s child labour Conventions are among the most widely ratified of ILO Conventions there is a need for countries that have not yet ratified the Conventions to do so, and to ensure their effective implementation. On this World Day we call on all governments that have not already done so to ratify and implement the Conventions.

National policies and programmes

The ILO’s Convention No. 182 requires that each Member which ratifies the Convention shall design and implement programmes of action to eliminate as a priority the worst forms of child labour. Many countries have now established National Action Plans that provide a framework for such efforts. However many other countries have yet to do so and countries that have established plans need to monitor and review their effectiveness. If the challenging target of eliminating the worst forms of child labour by 2016 is to be achieved, urgent action along these lines is required now!

The worldwide movement against child labour

Although governments must take the lead role in tackling child labour, the ILO standards stress the important role that employers and workers organizations should play in setting and implementing action programmes. Many civil society organizations are also closely involved in efforts to tackle child labour. Building the worldwide movement against child labour at global, national and local level remains a priority.

Join with us on June 12!

The World Day Against Child Labour promotes awareness and action to tackle child labour. Support for the World Day has been growing each year and in 2012 we look forward to a World Day that will again be widely supported.

Who knows best? Children do!

We underestimate children. In all my education careers (there seems to have been many) I have tried to facilitate the development of skills for participation by children (and adults). Allowing opportunities for participation are not enough -first develop the skills, such as communication and social skills – then provide the  real opportunities for using them. More and more organisations are realising the importance of article 12 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and are now willing to not only give children opportunities to express themselves but are also willing to listen to them. War Child has produced a report based on children’s evaluations of their programme in Uganda.

(War Child)

We are pleased to share the report ‘Who knows best? Children do!  How children evaluate the effects of a War Child programme. In this report we present the findings of a study in Uganda which explored the effects of War Child’s life skills based intervention ‘I DEAL’. In the study child-friendly and participatory monitoring and evaluation tools were piloted. For more information, contact

The full report is available here


WORLD AIDS DAY -December 1st , 2011

I have just written a post on children and discrimination and in many countries children infected and affected by HIV/AIDS are still discriminated against. While I was working in Guyana I discovered that patients entering a hospital could easily be given infected blood as they did not have the blood testing equipment. The blood tests worked out just a few pence each , but if you don’t have the kits or equipment….

INEE has again come up with a list of helpful resources:



How many are affected by HIV and AIDS?

At the end of 2010, UNAIDS and WHO estimated that around 34 million people are living with HIV worldwide, while 2.7 million persons have been newly infected with HIV, including an estimated 390,000 children, and 1.8 million people died of AIDS-related diseases (down from a peak of 2.2 million in the mid-2000s). The 2011 UNAIDS World AIDS Day Report also highlights that thanks to introduction of anti-retroviral therapy, a total of 2.5 million deaths have been avoided in low- and middle-income countries since 1995. Much of that achievement has taken place in the past two years when the access to treatment rapidly expanded; in 2010 alone, 700,000 AIDS-related deaths were averted.

Eliminating New HIV Infection among Children

The Global Plan, developed by UNAIDS, as part of the Millennium Development Goals, aims to eliminate, by 2015, new HIV infections among children and keep their mothers alive. Although this plan covers all low- and middle-income countries, its main focus is on 22 countries (mostly in the sub-Saharan Africa) with the highest estimated numbers of pregnant women living with HIV. To prevent new HIV infections among children and keep their mothers alive, pregnant women living with HIV and their children need anti-retroviral drugs. When antiretroviral drugs are used as prophylaxis, HIV transmission can be reduced to less than 5%.

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Education

A UNESCO report stresses that children are the most affected group as a result of HIV/AIDS, as they live with sick relatives in households with constrained resources. If one or both of their parents are ill or die, they are often left emotionally and physically vulnerable, and it is very common that they are taken out of school in order to care for the sick and contribute to the family income. Girls are disproportionately affected in this case. The report also highlights that teachers living with HIV are often absent due to the illness or medical treatment. Consequently, pupils are left without any schooling because of shortage of teachers.



Guidance on HIV in Education in Emergencies (online here) 

Developed by the INEE Task Team on HIV and the UNAIDS Task Team on Education, this tool provides information for education practitioners who provide, manage or support education services in emergencies. It provides guidance for mainstreaming HIV and sexual and reproductive health issues into formal and nonformal education responses for adolescents 10-19 years old.

World Aids Campaign —

Specialises in promoting the skills, knowledge and strategies required to successfully campaign, advocate and lobby on universal access.

World Aids Day —

Facts on HIV, awareness raising, events, video messages from politicians and celebrities who support the tackling of HIV.


Key publications, Guidance, 2010 Progress report, data and statistics, UNAIDS Strategy 2010-2015, resources.

and some story telling:

Children and Discrimination – CRIN’s excellent website and toolkit

CRIN (Children’s Rights International Network)  has established an excellent website and toolkit on children and discrimination.

The aims of the site are:

  • promote understanding of how discrimination affects all children’s rights
  • shed light on age discrimination against children
  • support the removal of barriers to all children’s inclusion


Discrimination involves treating an individual or a group of people unfairly in comparison to others because of who they are, or their circumstances.

The right to non-discrimination is a well-established human rights principle and one of the four over-arching principles of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). This means that all children should enjoy all rights set out in the CRC. For any right to be realised, children must not be discriminated against.

The UN Human Rights Committee defines discrimination as:

“any distinction, exclusion, restriction or preference which is based on any ground such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status and which has the purpose or effect of nullifying or impairing the recognition, enjoyment or exercise by all persons, on an equal footing, of all rights and freedoms.” (General Comment 18) Read more about definitions here.

Discrimination may be deliberate and intended, or unintentional. 

Although there has been significant work on this topic, the wide range of ways in which children experience different forms of discrimination has not been sufficiently explored or challenged. 

Why a toolkit on non-discrimination? 

Looking at rights violations through the lens of discrimination helps to expose prejudices and beliefs that may have led to unfair treatment – whether such treatment was intentional or otherwise. It can create new means of challenging negative actions, whether through law, policy, education or practice.

So, for example, by understanding that the corporal punishment of children, if legal within a given State, constitutes discrimination on the basis of age (an adult smacking another adult can be prosecuted for battery), it helps us to think about the issue in a different way. 

What is it about children that makes us think it is acceptable to hit them, but not adults – or even animals! Are there other ways in which this discriminatory view of children affects how we behave towards them? Why is discrimination towards other groups of people, for example ethnic minorities, normally considered unacceptable, yet sanctioned by the State when it comes to children?

The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) has non-discrimination as a core right for children. CRIN has made a detailed analysis of this right and how it relates to the other articles of the CRC:

Guide to non-discrimination and the CRC       Download in pdf

Challenging discrimination

Challenging discrimination against children requires a range of strategies which cover many different areas and are rightfully tailored to account for the particular situation of children in their countries.

Nevertheless, successful efforts will include certain key components. These include: changing legislation, policy, attitudes, as well as the physical environment and the allocation of resources that perpetuate inequalities and discrimination, providing channels for children’s participation, collecting data, and establishing mechanisms to monitor and report discrimination.

The pages that follow provide some guidance on these diverse areas and examples of how discrimination has been successfully challenged.






Advocacy examples

More information 

Other international instruments addressing discrimination include, among others:

International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD, 1965)

UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW, 1979)

UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2008)

UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Inter-American Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Persons with Disabilities

UN Human Rights Committee, General Comment No. 18 on Non-discrimination (1989)

UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Draft General Comment on Discrimination and Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (2009)


You may also like to view the website on the Children’s Rights Alliance as well as UNICEF


Check also the Children’s Rights Wiki:

NEW Children’s Rights Wiki

  • brings together all information about children’s rights in one place
  • highlights persistent violations
  • inspires collective action

Celebrate Human Rights Day – 10th December 2011

Human Rights Day is celebrated annually across the world on 10 December.

Check this site: Celebrate Human Rights Day

The date was chosen to honor the United Nations General Assembly‘s adoption and proclamation, on 10 December 1948, of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the first global enunciation of human rights. The formal establishment of Human Rights Day occurred at the 317th Plenary Meeting of the General Assembly on 4 December 1950, when the General Assembly declared resolution 423(V), inviting all member states and any other interested organizations to celebrate the day as they saw fit.

The day is a high point in the calendar of UN headquarters in New York City, United States, and is normally marked by both high-level political conferences and meetings and by cultural events and exhibitions dealing with human rights issues. In addition, it is traditionally on 10 December that the five-yearly United Nations Prize in the Field of Human Rights and Nobel Peace Prize are awarded. Many governmental and nongovernmental organizations active in the human rights field also schedule special events to commemorate the day, as do many civil and social-cause organisations.

Want do some something on Human Rights Day?


Pledge to join thousands of others writing their letters as part of Write for Rights Day on 10 December. You can pledge to write a letter, come along to one of our events or hold your own with friends and family. Whatever you plan to do, we’ll send you a reminder so you don’t forget! Take the Pledge now | Find an event near you

Send a message of solidarity

Sending a card with a simple, personal greeting is a powerful way to show support for someone facing human rights abuse.

Every card matters. For prisoners of conscience, for families whose relatives have disappeared, for people in danger for defending human rights, the cards bring comfort and hope; they offer encouragement and support, and raise spirits. But they also show the authorities – prison officers and politicians – that the world is watching. Find out more and send a card.

If you are organising a letter writing event at school, with some friends or as part of a Local Group we have made all of this year’s case sheets, address labels, appeal template letters and translated messages available to download. Download resources

INEE have added their weight to Human Rights Day

Celebrating the Right to Education

INEE is grounded in the fundamental principle that education is a human right. Education promotes individual freedom and empowerment and is essential for the exercise of other human rights. To mark International Human Rights Day, we want to lift up Articles in the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights and in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which provide that grounding.

Human rights do not cease during disaster or conflict; slavery and servitude are unacceptable in non-emergency and in emergency contexts alike. The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion do not stop when a flood or earthquake occurs, nor does the right to a nationality or peaceful assembly. It is the same for education-or at least, it should be.  Millions of children and youth are, today, being denied their human right to education because they live in a conflict zone, or their community has been impacted by a natural disaster. This lack of education is unacceptable. Beyond being recognized as a fundamental human right, education must be protected and supported with strong legal frameworks, adequate resources and political support.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948

Article 26

(1) Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be free, at least in the elementary and fundamental stages. Elementary education shall be compulsory. Technical and professional education shall be made generally available and higher education shall be equally accessible to all on the basis of merit.

(2) Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups, and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace.

(3) Parents have a prior right to choose the kind of education that shall be given to their children.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child, 1989

Article 28

1. States Parties recognize the right of the child to education, and with a view to achieving this right progressively and on the basis of equal opportunity, they shall, in particular:

(a) Make primary education compulsory and available free to all;

(b) Encourage the development of different forms of secondary education, including general and vocational education, make them available and accessible to every child, and take appropriate measures such as the introduction of free education and offering financial assistance in case of need;

(c) Make higher education accessible to all on the basis of capacity by every appropriate means;

(d) Make educational and vocational information and guidance available and accessible to all children;

(e) Take measures to encourage regular attendance at schools and the reduction of drop-out rates.

2. States Parties shall take all appropriate measures to ensure that school discipline is administered in a manner consistent with the child’s human dignity and in conformity with the present Convention.

3. States Parties shall promote and encourage international cooperation in matters relating to education, in particular with a view to contributing to the elimination of ignorance and illiteracy throughout the world and facilitating access to scientific and technical knowledge and modern teaching methods. In this regard, particular account shall be taken of the needs of developing countries.

Article 29

1. States Parties agree that the education of the child shall be directed to:

(a) The development of the child’s personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential;

(b) The development of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and for the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations;

(c) The development of respect for the child’s parents, his or her own cultural identity, language and values, for the national values of the country in which the child is living, the country from which he or she may originate, and for civilizations different from his or her own;

(d) The preparation of the child for responsible life in a free society, in the spirit of understanding, peace, tolerance, equality of sexes, and friendship among all peoples, ethnic, national and religious groups and persons of indigenous origin;

(e) The development of respect for the natural environment.

2. No part of the present article or article 28 shall be construed so as to interfere with the liberty of individuals and bodies to establish and direct educational institutions, subject always to the observance of the principle set forth in paragraph 1 of the present article and to the requirements that the education given in such institutions shall conform to such minimum standards as may be laid down by the State.

For more information on the right to education and on UNESCO’s work in this area see UNESCO and Education: Everyone has the Right to Education, UNESCO, 2011.

HREA would also like to celebrate HRD 2011

Human Rights Day 2011 is even memorable for those involved in human rights education. The UN General Assembly is expected to adopt the Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training on this day. This landmark document recognises the right of every one of the planet’s seven billion people to have access to human rights education, a lifelong process involving all ages, all parts of society, and every kind of education, formal and informal. The Declaration specifies not simply what one should learn about human rights, but also how (“through human rights, which includes learning and teaching in a way that respects the rights of both educators and learners”) and also why (“for human rights, which includes empowering persons to enjoy and exercise their rights and to respect and uphold the rights of others”). The adoption of this new Declaration also offers educators and policy makers an occasion to reassess state and national policies and priorities in the light of international standards.

HUMAN RIGHTS EDUCATION – new links and resources – May 2011

New resources have been added to the Human Rights Education Association (HREA) online library:
A Humanitarian Practitioner’s Guide to International Human Rights Law by William G. O’Neill (Providence: The Thomas J. Watson Jr. Institute for International Studies, 1999). Language(s): English. Keywords: guide, humanitarian workers, NGO staff, civil and political rights, internally displaced persons, international humanitarian law, refugee law, refugees, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR). URL:

Basic Introduction to Human Rights and Rights-Based Programming (CARE Human Rights Initiative, 2001). Language(s): English. Keywords: manual, student text, teacher guide, development workers, humanitarian workers, human rights-based approach (HRBA) to programming, International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). URL:

Kid’s Talk: Freedom of Expression and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child by Linda Kirschke (London: Article 19, 1999). Language(s): English. Keywords: report, access to information, children’s rights, civil and political rights, freedom of expression, freedom of religion, rights of the child, Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), Committee on the Rights of the Child, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Uganda. URL:

Professional Training Series No.4: National Human Rights Institutions: A Handbook for the Establishment and Strengthening of National Institutions for the Promotion and Protection of Human Rights (Geneva: United Nations Centre for Human Rights, 1995). Language(s): Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian. Keywords: handbook, government officials, public officials, training of professional groups, national human rights institutions, Principles relating to the status of national institutions (“Paris Principles”). URL:

Promoting Rights in Schools: providing quality public education (Johannesburg: Right to Education Project and ActionAid, 2006). Language(s): English, French. Keywords: NGO staff, pupils, school administrators, students, teachers, children’s rights, right to education, rights of the child, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Convention on the Elimination of All Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), Africa. URL:

and some new links for further country information: