The tireless staff of INEE continue to develop training materials that challenge and innovate:
INEE-Education Cluster Training Module: Gender Responsive Education
The INEE-Education Cluster Training Package contains a module on Gender Responsive Education, which includes PowerPoint presentations, a facilitators guide, supplementary materials, handouts, and the INEE Gender Case Study Template. At the end of the training session, participants will be able to: (1) explain what is meant by gender-responsive education; (2) reflect on the challenges and identify best practices; (3) use the ADAPT and ACT Collectively Framework to mainstream gender; and (4) develop gender-responsive strategies supported by the INEE Minimum Standards.
Well , having finished the manual on school based training, we immediately thought perhaps it is better if there were opportunities for teachers to work with teachers in other schools close-by. It is not new, but we have now embarked on cluster based training.
The work in PEDC covers 40 provinces and 126 districts, involving more than 4,000 main schools with their 14,000 satellite sites, aiming to reach the most ‘unreachable’, but luckily not ‘unteachable’!
Many students in the more isolated areas are ethnic minority students (there 53 ethnic minorities in Vietnam), some of whom find themselves being taught in a language of which they only know a few words. Such is the challenge for teachers and teacher trainers.
What should a cluster look like? How many schools?
Its a bit like forming groups in training sessions – about 4 seems just right, 2 is too small and 6 can be too big, but of course it all depends on geography and communications. In some of our more mountainous provinces distances can be quite far between satellite sites, let alone main schools.
Here are some criteria we are considering using for identifying the ‘lead’ school in a cluster
Main school should be centrally located for easy access to the other three main schools.
Head teacher should be trained (under 50?) and with proven experience of leading professional development activities.
Low number of students repeating grade 1 in 2009.
Have at least one key teacher who has trained teachers at district level.
School has potential as resource base for the school cluster (could be linked to Inclusive Education resource teachers).
Has proven effective School Development planning process and implemented plan.
Not wanting to be ageist, but the lead school head teacher will be an investment for the future and needs to have some more years to serve.
Leadership of the cluster could of course be rotated depending on the overall competence of the school managers, but again geography may necessitate for one central school to maintain coordinating responsibility. Facilities, such as a large meeting room, may only be found in the lower secondary school , so the lead school may be chosen with that in mind, as well as the presence of electricity.
What do the cluster schools do?
The obvious starting point is monthly professional development activities where follow up discussions and sharing of experiences can occur following a training workshop. Workshop (1) can be a school or cluster based activity (of about two days not to disrupt the school week too much )
The trials in the classroom can be part of an action research cycle and can include ‘lesson study‘ or lesson observation activities. The results of these activities are brought together once again , as a cluster , in workshop ( 2 ) which consists of feeding back and reflecting as well as gaining new knowledge and skills, and the cycle continues.
Trainers, managers and teachers are encouraged to keep a ‘professional diary’ which provides notes for reflection and action .
The note book can be quite simple with three columns .
Reflection and Discussion
At the start of workshop (2) teachers can bring their notebooks to input some ideas for approaches that have worked well and to raise issues that other teachers can help explore through collaborative problem solving – such as the use of force field analysis:
In Colombia, in Escuela Nueva microcentres, teachers meet together to adapt the learning guides so that learning guides fit the local context.
study material giving detailed information on the module’s subject and a list of further reading
slides giving a summary of the study material
training material for participatory workshops that comprises exercises giving practical guidance for facilitators and handouts for participants.
They all include the same sequence of five topics, reflecting the ARC programme cycle.
Topic 1 The issue for children Topic 2 The law and child rights Topic 3 Assessment and situation analysis Topic 4Planning and implementation Topic 5Monitoring, evaluation and learning
Who are these resources aimed at?
Although the pack has been developed mainly for humanitarian workers with responsibility for designing interventions, building capacity or raising awareness about child protection in emergencies, the intended range of users is far broader than this.
Primary users build the capacity of others using the pack, and include:
Managers with responsibilities for planning and resource management wanting to improve programming for children. This could be managers with overall programme responsibility (eg. at country or district level) or thematic or sectoral responsibility.
Facilitators with responsibilities for developing and delivering training and supporting capacity-building initiatives such as staff briefings. Recommended for this would be facilitators with first-hand experience of emergencies and competency to be able to advise managers how to make best use of the pack.
People with responsibilities for child protection or child rights capacity building and training This could be people acting as focal points in local or international organisations, or government, police or military institutions, or the community.
Coordinators and members of child protection clusters with responsibilities for building cluster members’ capacity to address child protection issues in emergencies, and provide interagency training opportunities.
ARC champions able to promote the ARC resource pack and its continued development, and the use of rights-based approaches. This could be people working on child protection in emergencies who keep an oversight of relevant materials.
Secondary users may be briefed or trained using the pack, and include:
Staff of humanitarian and other agencies, including community-based organisationsThis could be people with responsibilities for service delivery, support to government staff, community mobilisation and direct or indirect work with children.
Staff of government organisations These could be duty bearers in relation to the realisation and protection of particular child rights. The pack has been used to train a wide range of participants, including peacekeepers, military personnel, police, border guards and judiciary and it has been used to mobilise community committees for children.
Indirect users of the pack include:
Rights holders This could include children, their parents or community members. Although the resource pack has not been designed to be used directly by children, parents or community members, much of the pack’s content can be adapted by other users (eg. ARC facilitators or champions) for local use.
This pack has evolved over several years, and continuously updated and some of the organisations involved in its development inlcude:
We have a duty to build capacity in people so that they know what their basic human rights are, how to find support for protection of these rights and to understand how they can take action to protect other people’s human rights.
Check out UNICEF’s Voice of Youth site for more information about children’s rights.
Instead of heeding lessons of the past, we seem to be reading more and more in the news about child soldiers, sexual violence being perpetrated as a weapon of war, civilians being injured, tortured, killed as a way of ‘undermining governments’ policies’ and as a general threat to innocent civilians. This is also in the context of a wide availability of more sophisticated weapons in the poorest of countries and a general plundering of natural resources , particularly minerals such as diamonds leading to a wider range of conflicts.
The next generation will already be receiving this situation, handed down by their parents -education of the next two generations is necessary to get a real change in attitudes and behaviour and and for all children , no matter where they live, have their basic rights protected and enforced.
The text below comes from the HREA Quarterly Newsletter ( July-September 2009)
Designed for primary and secondary schools, teacher training institutions and other learning settings, the new tool, which collects 101 exemplary practices from Central Asia, Europe and North America, is a valuable resource for teachers and education policymakers.
It provides resource materials relevant to key elements for successful human rights education, including 1) laws, guidelines and standards; 2) learning environment; 3) teaching and learning tools; 4) professional development for educators, and 5) evaluation.
The collection demonstrates creative approaches to human rights education and aims to facilitate networking and exchange of experience among education professionals. The practices can be adapted to local conditions anywhere in the world.
Below is an example of a good practice included in the Compendium:
Crimes of War – What the Public Should Know: Educator’s Guide
Intended Audience: Upper secondary school and university students (ages 16-22) and their teachers.
Purpose: The Educator’s Guide was developed to make the reality of war crimes more accessible to youth, young adults and future decision makers in a classroom learning environment.
The assumption is that if students and their teachers know the depth of the horrors of war – the same wars that are often described in mainstream media as “precise”, “modern”, or “just” – they would take a more active role in deciding when, where and why to go to war, and in influencing the way those wars are fought.
Description: The Educator’s Guide accompanies the second edition of Crimes of War: What the Public Should Know, composed of case studies written by prominent field journalists. The Educator’s Guide was developed in co-operation with the Crimes of War Project (publisher of the second edition) and the United States Institute of Peace.
In the Educator’s Guide, there are eight thematic chapters: weapons, violence against civilians, child soldiers, sexual violence, terrorism and torture, genocide, international courts and tribunals, and humanitarian intervention. Each of the thematic chapters is linked to case studies contained in the second edition of Crimes of War, as well as United States national education standards. The chapters include the following elements:
• an essential question;
• learning objectives;
• background information on the theme;
• discussion questions (organized from simplest to most complex);
• extension activities (that can be used for additional class work or homework);
• ways that learners can take action; and
• additional film, Web and print resources for the classroom.
In addition to thematic, case study chapters, the Educator’s Guide contains a Glossary of Terms and a “Background and Key Concepts” section that presents the history of international humanitarian law and key concepts of the Geneva Conventions and its Additional Protocols.
In order to strengthen students’ sense that they can do something positive in addressing crimes of war, each chapter provides an “action” section with practical activities, such as participating in awareness raising and action campaigns. Furthermore, two of the chapters address justice mechanisms for addressing crimes of war: courts and humanitarian intervention.
Strengths: The Educator’s Guide supports educators in addressing the themes of crimes of war and international humanitarian law, which are rarely addressed in school settings. While making use of journalistic case studies to engage students, the lessons also provide historical and technical backgrounds necessary for understanding the themes.
The resource is designed for flexible use by teachers. For each thematic issue, educators can choose from a range of related case studies in the second edition of Crimes of War. The discussion questions are organised from simplest to most complex thinking so that those most suitable for the students can be selected. The reference section of each chapter links teachers with original sources and multi-media tools that can be used to enhance the lesson.
Adaptability: The Educator’s Guide is intended for use in cross-national settings and was written to be culturally nonspecific, with regional examples from Europe, Africa and Asia. The second edition of Crimes of War is available in English and Arabic, and a French edition, as well as additional translations, are forthcoming.
Availability: The Educator’s Guide can be downloaded at http://www.hrea.org/crimesofwar. Two sample chapters, “Weapons” and “Violence Against Civilians: Sieges and Sanctions”, are included in the Compendium Annex. The main text, Crimes of War: What the Public Should Know (second edition), can be found on-line in English and Arabic at http://www.crimesofwar.org/thebook/book.html.
E-learning – online capacity building
HREA is offering fourteen e-learning courses in the first trimester of 2010 (1 February-20 April), including courses on child rights programming, gender mainstreaming, human rights-based programming, human rights litigation, human rights of migrants and migrant workers, introduction to human rights education, monitoring children’s rights (in French), national human rights institutions, and the UN Human Rights Council. Find out more about these and other upcoming e-learning opportunities.
Watch and listen to international keynote speakers talking on Country-led M&E Systems
UNICEF CEE/CIS, IDEAS and DevInfo, in partnership with WFP, OECD/DAC Network on Development evaluation and IOCE, are pleased to make available, every month and free of charge, the videos of international keynote speakers presenting the latest thinking on Country-led M&E Systems.
Robert Picciotto, King’s College, and former Director General, Evaluation, World Bank.
September 2009 Tools to strengthen Country-led M&E systems. Good practices in using DevInfo
Marco Segone, Regional Chief, Monitoring and Evaluation, UNICEF CEE/CIS; Nicolas Pron, Global DevInfo Administrator; Farhod Khamidov, M&E Specialist, UNICEF Tajikistan.
October 2009 Developing evaluation capacities
Caroline Heider, Director, Office of Evaluation, World Food Programme
Building a country-wide M&E system in Sri Lanka Dhara Wijayatikale – Permanent Secretary, Ministry of Plan Implementation, Sri Lanka.
Monitoring and evaluation in South Africa
Indran Naidoo – Deputy-Director General, Office of the Public Service Commission, Republic of South Africa.
Building results-based M&E systems. The case of Botswana Collie Monkge – Vision 2016 Coordinator, Botswana
M&E in Zambia. The case of the Zambia Evaluation Association John Njovu, Chairman, Zambia Evaluation Association, Zambia.
M & E in Pakistan. The case of the Pakistan Evaluation Network Khadija Khan, Chair, Pakistan Evaluation Network.
Notes: 1. These videos are a selection of key sessions on Country-led M&E Systems organized at the Global IDEAS Conference held in March 2009 in Johannesburg, South Africa. 2. The opinions expressed are those of the presenters and do not necessarily reflect the policies or views of
UNICEF. The videos and presentations have not been edited to official publication standards and UNICEF accepts no responsibility forerrors. The designations in these videos and presentations do not imply an opinion on legal status of any country or territory, or of its authorities, of the delimitations of frontiers.
Participatory forms of training have proven themselves during the last 30 years or so. New brain research has helped define good practice around the concept of learning by doing. Lecturing can still be part of a trainer’s repertoire ,fifteen minutes maximum and supported by a variety of visual media, as part of trainer’s toolkit.
Participation now considers all participants not just a select few, or the majority. It is now the facilitator’s duty to involve all participants, to adapt training activities to meet participants’ needs. Training is now more demanding but at the same time more satisfying as you watch participants ‘grow’ through their involvement in various training challenges,leading to skill development.
For teacher training, one – off training is not seen as affective. A training package is now seen as:
follow up in the classroom with a mentor
more follow up at classroom level where application of training concepts can be observed and even assessed if necessary.
Another relatively new development is classroom action research. Reflective teaching or classroom action research,brings educational research into the application to solving classroom issues,rather than consideration of system reform/change.
Action research tied to ongoing democratic forms of training can be a powerful innovator for change at grass roots level.
The other aspect of training is that for school teachers the content should be relevant to their working situation and challenge them in ways that motivate them to apply in the classroom. Creativity is a concept that could be explored in a workshop and then applied in the classroom in any subject. Short videos of classroom experimentation followed by group discussion can be a powerful approach to teacher learning and improvement.
Following action research by teachers during in-service training there is no reason why students at whatever age should not engage in action research themselves. They can explore their own ways of learning. Look at this example from Croatia:
It may seem a simple approach but the development of a range of skills related to ‘metacognition’ -or learning about learning will prepare them for lifelong learning.
Though the vote in East Timor in 1999 was overwhelmingly for independence, extreme opposition from militia groups led to massive destruction and the displacement of some 250,000 people to West Timor and still more hundreds of thousands to the hills around the villages and urban settlements of East Timor.
Over 90% of all school buildings were severely damaged or destroyed by the Indonesian military and in the exodus of Indonesians out of East Timor, the nation lost 20% of its primary school teachers and 80% of secondary teachers. UNICEF and other international aid organizations responded fairly quickly, however, reestablishing classes for 420 of the country’s 800 primary schools by December 1999 plus an additional 273 schools by April 2000. Timor Leste became the world’s newest nation on May 20th 2002.
Using local resources
During training, it is good practice to make the best of whatever local resources are available, both human and material. While working in Timor Leste (East Timor) I was privileged to meet a local translator, Jorge, who became a good friend and a wonderful natural facilitator, while training head teachers and teachers.
Jorge had survived a ‘near-death’ experience facing Indonesian militia during Timor’s struggle for independence.
During one training workshop, I was naively discussing with the group about using local materials for use in science lessons. After the session Jorge asked if he could run a short session on the use of local resources for teaching, and he would provide the local materials. I already knew I could trust Jorge so I eagerly let him prepare for the next day. Little did I realise he would spend until midnight preparing for his session, which included climbing trees to collect natural gum, to be used as an adhesive
The outdoor laboratory
Although he had no training as a facilitator, he was a natural in terms of knowing his subject, understanding the needs of his audience,preparing well and providing challenging activities so that participants develop new skills in a supportive environment.
In many ways we were teaching each other and learning from each other as I watched in awe at the inventive way he developed his session into a full day experience and how he continued to build and extend his repertoire of training skills. As a local person he was also able to be more challenging and try to get the best out of poorly educated teachers,many of whom had to come off the fields to volunteer to be a teacher in the early days of the world’s newest nation. He believed in people’s capacity and the proof was in the revolution that could be seen in the classrooms of teachers we worked with.
Products of a teacher training workshop in rural Timor Leste
With Jorge’s drive and ingenuity bare-walled classrooms, previously devoid of stimulation, became an Aladdin’s cave with models of the solar system hanging from the ceiling, learning corners with local musical instruments, pieces of weaving looms and many other artefacts and teaching aids that started to make lessons come alive and stimulate learning for all the students.
It really was a dream to work alongside Jorge and a humbling experience to see people build something from the ashes of their schools. Rice farmers came off the rice fields to volunteer as teachers, so that children could go to school.
Luckily Jorge was able to witness his country’s independence and be determined that he could help build capacity in others to make the most of new found freedoms.
Dedicated to Jorge Mouzinho and the other young people of Timor Leste.