Pakistan floods – the emergency response – education

INEE has responded quickly and provided those who can help with the resources and links below:

Over the past month, Pakistan has experienced the worst monsoon-related floods in living memory. Heavy rainfall, flash floods and riverine floods have devastated large parts of Pakistan since the arrival of seasonal monsoon rains on 22 July. The flood waters devastated towns and villages, downed power and communications lines, and inflicted major damage to buildings. Many key roads and major bridges are damaged or destroyed. Some districts remain accessible only by water or air transport. According to UN estimations, half of the 15.4 millions of people affected by the floods are children. Over 1,400 people have died and at least 893,000 homes have been damaged or destroyed. The prevailing socioeconomic conditions, along with flood situation have exacerbated the living conditions of all those residing in the flood-affected districts. Of particular concern, due to cultural constraints, women and girls are sometimes not able to access basic services or humanitarian aid.
Impact on Education:
Education services and infrastructure have been severely disrupted and damaged by the flooding.

  • According to initial reports, there are 309,000 children – including 136,000 girls – whose schools have been damaged. In addition, there are 306,000 children – including 135,000 girls – whose schools have been converted into shelters.

  • About 5,500 schools, some of which were already in poor conditions prior to floods, have been converted into shelters for local population.
  • As the summer vacations draw to a close in most places by mid to end-August, timely continuation of school year for approximately 6 million children remains a huge challenge.
  • Children have undergone severe trauma in being displaced from their home and witnessing loss of lives and livelihoods around them. A large number of local teachers have also been directly affected and displaced and teacher absenteeism is expected to be an issue.

Resource MobilizationThe Pakistan Initial Flood Emergency Response Plan was issued on 10 August. The appeal requests a total of US$ 459.7 million. Although an education response plan was prepared, at the last moment this was not included as part of this first round of requests. The initial appeal will be revised within 30 days to reflect assessed needs and, according to current indications, will include education as the situation moves towards early recovery. In early August, the Education Cluster estimated more than US$ 20 million will be required to implement its response plan. This is likely to increase as the waters recede and needs become more apparent.

The overall emergency response will be less effective if education is excluded. In Pakistan, theresumption of education allows, for example, the provision of inoculations against cholera and typhoid and the treatment of conditions including diarrhea. Providing children with a safe place also enables parents to access services and recover livelihoods more easily.
Education Cluster Strategy and proposed activitiesThe Education Cluster aims to ensure that children in flood-affected areas have safe and sustainable access to quality education. The Education Cluster in Pakistan has been active for several years, co-lead by UNICEF and Save the Children. The Education Cluster is working closely with the Protection, WASH, Health, Food and Shelter clusters and the Child Protection sub clusters to give a holistic and integrated response to the flood affected population. Planned activities include:

  • Completing a needs assessment of the impact of the floods on the education sector in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Baluchistan, Punjab, Sindh (by September 2010). A multi-sector needs assessment is already underway.
  • Restoring educational services in schools converted into IDP shelters for the flood affected population in the four provinces of Pakistan (estimated at several hundred).(by November 2010)
  • Providing SIP (School Improvement Plan) grants to schools damaged by floods (currently assessed at 1,891 (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa: 444, Punjab: 1,307, Baluchistan: 140) with priority given to affected girls schools. (by November)
  • Work with other clusters to provide health screening, water and sanitation facilities, hygiene awareness, and school feeding programmes in affected areas. (by November)
  • Work with the shelter cluster to identify alternative living spaces for those displaced by the floods and sheltering in schools. (by November)

How you can help
Education actors:

  • Contribute to assessments of education-related needs in all affected areas.
  • Continue the school cycle to give normalcy and routine to children; this is of utmost importance. We must act immediately to ensure children can access quality education as schools open in late August and September 2010.
  • Establish temporary learning spaces where schools have been destroyed or extensively damaged to ensure continuation of educational activities.
  • Restore educational services in schools converted into IDP shelters for the flood-affected population. Work with the Shelter Cluster to identify alternative living spaces for those sheltering in schools.
  • Provide psychosocial support to traumatized children and reintegrate them into day-to-day school activities.
  • Use schools as a point of entry to inoculate children for cholera/typhoid, prevent/treat other
  • diseases (diarrhea, worms, skin infections, etc), and provide critical early childhood development activities (e.g. parent training, pre-school programmes, transition to school).


  • Contribute urgently needed funds for education – likely to be in range of $20 million for immediate response interventions.
  • Fund the Education Cluster to carry out a rapid assessment, followed by a more in-depth assessment, in all affected areas.
  • Include funding for education programmes as part of their emergency response, including the establishment of temporary learning spaces to ensure continuation of educational activities.
  • Provide education support in areas where cross-clusters and cross-sector outcomes will be realized (e.g. WASH, Health, Protection).

Related Resources:

INEE Minimum Standards updated 2010 provide good practices and concrete guidance to governments and humanitarian workers for coordinated action to enhance the quality of educational preparedness and response, increase access to relevant learning opportunities, and ensure humanitarian accountability in providing these services.

INEE Pocket Guide to Inclusive Education provides practical strategies to ensure the education system is safe, accessible and effective for all vulnerable groups including ethnic minorities.

INEE Pocket Guide to Gender distils essential gender equality programming principles, and provides concrete strategies for putting gender equality into practice.

INEE Guidance Notes on Teaching and Learning offer practical, in-depth guidance on issues of Curricula Review and Adaptation; Teacher Training, Professional Development and Support; Instruction and Learning Processes; and the Assessment of Learning Outcomes.

INEE Reference Guide to External Financing provides an overview of the difference types of mechanisms for financing education in order to help governments, policy makers and civil society better understand the ways in which donors provide education assistance, how various funding mechanisms work and why donors choose one funding mechanism over another.

INEE Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction provides a framework to develop a context- specific plan for disaster resilient construction and retrofitting of school buildings, including a series of suggested steps that highlight key points that should be considered when planning a safer school construction and/or retrofitting initiative.

INEE Education in Emergencies Talking Points focuses on emergency response and the linkages to be made between education and other sectors. The last 5 pages provide links to key education and emergency response tools.

Flood Disasters: Learning from previous relief and recovery operations (ALNAP, 2008) This briefing paper provides a synthesis of and an introduction to key lessons from evaluations of relief and recovery/humanitarian response to flooding in the last 20 years from Africa, Asia and the Americas.

Click here to access additional resources related to floods and education.

Related Websites:

OCHA Webportal An inter-agency website for Pakistan has been established as a center for information management and financial tracking, including OCHA, other agencies and NGOs Sit Reps.

One Response Education Cluster Website compiles Education Cluster key documents and tools while the One Response Webpage on Pakistan provides updates on funding, coordination and key priorities across sectors.

ReliefWeb Site provides Education updates on Pakistan, including OCHA, Save the Children and UNICEF Sit Reps.

The following documents are available on request by emailing the Education Cluster at

CCCM Collective Centre Guidelines includes a section on education, available on request.

Orientation for Education Staff on Psychosocial Support and Education This tool is an example of an Orientation Seminar for members of the Education Cluster or other education actors. It draws upon the IASC Guidelines on Mental Health and Psychosocial Support in Emergency Settings. The seminar content is available on request.

Psychosocial Teacher Training Materials (UNICEF, 2009) This package provides materials for training teachers to address the psychosocial needs of learners, and be aware of their support needs.

Safe Schools in Safe Territories (UNICEF, 2009) This document includes a section on measures that can be taken to minimize the negative impact if the use of educational institutions as shelters.
Both UNICEF documents are available on request.

Education Cluster Advocacy Briefing on Pakistan,available on request

Education Cluster Joint Needs Assessment Toolkit This Toolkit aims to guide national Education Clusters, or other education sector working groups, in the collective design and application of an education needs assessment to generate reliable, comprehensive and timely information to inform effective inter-agency emergency education response. A Short Guide to Education in Rapid Needs Assessments has also been developed. Both documents are available on request pending their publication next month.

Human Rights Education – new resources

Human Rights Education Association (HREA) have listed some new resources:

A Practical Guide to the United Nations’ Universal Periodic Review (UPR) by Tatiana Bejar (New York: Human Rights Project at the Urban Justice Center, 2010). Language(s): English. Keywords: human rights monitors, NGO staff, universal periodic review (UPR), Human Rights Council, United Kingdom, USA. URL:

Children’s Rights Education for Adults (Berlin: Democracy and Human Rights Education in Europe (DARE) Network, 2010). Language(s): English. Keywords: lessons learned, report, NGO staff, training of professional groups, adult education, children’s rights, human rights education, right to education, rights of the child, Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), World Programme for Human Rights Education, European Union, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Europe, Germany, Hungary, Netherlands, Slovenia. URL:

Education in human rights in international law: Foundations, assessment, and perspectives by Ramdane Babadji (Geneva: CIFEDHOP, 2006). Language(s): English, French. Keywords: article, human rights education, Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel and Degrading Treatment (CAT), Convention on the Elimination of All Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD), Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), UNESCO Convention Against Discrimination in Education, Human Rights Council, UN Special Rapporteur on the right to education. URL:

Gender and Rights: A Resource Guide by Maitrayee Mukhopadhyay, Chris Hunter, and Kirsty Milward (Amsterdam: Royal Tropical Institute and Gendernet, n.d.). Language(s): English. Keywords: guide, NGO staff, staff of international organisations, gender equality, gender mainstreaming, human rights-based approach (HRBA) to programming, women’s human rights. URL:

Human rights and humanitarian law in professional policing concepts. Highlights from the book To Serve and Protect (Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, 2007). Language(s): English. Keywords: law enforcement officials, appropriate use of force, criminal justice, equality before the law, international humanitarian law, juvenile justice, violence against women, International Committee of the Red Cross/Crescent (ICRC). URL:

Human rights education in non-formal settings: Lessons learned from the Rights Education Action Programme (London: Amnesty International, 2010). Language(s): Arabic, English, French, Malay, Polish, Romanian, Russian, Slovenian, Spanish, Turkish. Keywords: brochure, evaluation, lessons learned, NGO staff, youth, non-formal education, human rights education. URL:

Resources for Human Rights Education 2: Using Games, Films and Role-Playing: A Practical Guide from the EMHRN Summer School 2008 by Nour Hemici, Monica Grunfeld Rius, Hiba Heneini, Issa Amro (Copenhagen: Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network, 2010). Language(s): English. Keywords: lesson activities, students, trainers, youth, informal education, non-formal education, training of trainers, conflict resolution, tolerance education, conflict transformation, human rights education, methodology. URL:

The ICRC and universities: Working together to promote international humanitarian law (Geneva: International Committee of the Red Cross, 2008). Language(s): English. Keywords: professors, students, higher education, international humanitarian law, International Committee of the Red Cross/Crescent (ICRC). URL:

Training Resources on Penal Reform and Gender by Agneta M. Johannsen (Geneva: The Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, 2010). Language(s): English. Keywords: training manual, prison officials, training of trainers, criminal justice, gender equality, gender mainstreaming, prisoners’ rights, sexual violence, violence against women. URL:

International Literacy Day 2010 Literacy: An essential foundation for development

International Literacy Day 2010

Literacy: An essential foundation for development

International Literacy Day

8 September

Literacy is a cause for celebration since there are now close to four billion literate people in the world. However, literacy for all – children, youth and adults – is still an unaccomplished goal and an ever moving target. A combination of ambitious goals, insufficient and parallel efforts, inadequate resources and strategies, and continued underestimation of the magnitude and complexity of the task accounts for this unmet goal. Lessons learnt over recent decades show that meeting the goal of universal literacy calls not only for more effective efforts but also for renewed political will and for doing things differently at all levels – locally, nationally and internationally.In its resolution A/RES/56/116, the General Assembly proclaimed the ten year period beginning 1 January 2003 the United Nations Literacy Decade. In resolution A/RES/57/166, the Assembly welcomed the International Plan of Action for the Decade and decided that Unesco should take a coordinating role in activities undertaken at the international level within the framework of the Decade.

Why literacy is important?

Literacy is not just about educating, it is a unique and powerful tool to eradicate poverty and a strong means for social and human progress. The focus of literacy lies in acquiring basic education for all, eradicating poverty, reducing infant mortality, simmering down population growth, reaching gender equality and ensuring constant development, peace and democracy. There are sufficient reasons why literacy is the centre of Education for All (EFA). A good quality basic education equips people with literacy potentials for life and further learning; literate parents are inclined to send their children to school; literate people are prone to access continuing educational opportunities; and educated societies are better geared to keep pace with the pressing development.

Hence literacy is considered as an effective way to enlighten a society and arm it to facing the challenges of life in a stronger and efficient way, raise the level of personal living, create and assist change the society.

UNESCO undertakes capacity-building for sustainable literacy through multidimensional activities. The main areas of capacity-building in the fields of literacy and non-formal education include:

– policy formulation and implementation

– institution building

– planning and management

– curriculum development and materials design

– teaching and learning strategies and methodologies

– training of trainers, as well as facilitators

– developing support structures and mechanisms, as well as learner performance assessment

– monitoring and evaluation

The modalities of capacity development for literacy include training, study visits, peer reviews, South-South and North-South exchanges, networking and partnership-building. Various groups from the governmental and civil society levels are the focus of capacity development, including policy-makers, planners, and programme managers and implementers. The sustainability of any literacy action depends on good capacity, and efforts to improve it must start from an assessment of capacity needs at country level.


A situation analysis, such as that carried out by LIFE countries, is one way of identifying capacity-building needs. Another tool for this purpose is the UNESCO National Education Support Strategy (UNESS).

Related links

NFE-MIS Handbook: Developing a Sub-national Non-formal Education Management Information System

Handbook for Literacy and Non Formal Facilitators in Africa

Manual for Developing Literacy and Adult Education Programmes in Minority Language Communities (UNESCO Bangkok)

Training Guide and Training Techniques (UNESCO Bangkok)

Handbook: Non-formal Adult Education Facilitators (APPEAL, UNESCO Bangkok)

From INEE:

Teacher Guide: Basic Literacy, Numeracy and Themes for Everyday Living, NRC and UNESCO, 2000. Download here.

Effective literacy programmes: Options for policy-makers Oxenham, J. 2008. Paris, UNESCO-IIEP. 140 p. (Fundamentals of Educational Planning, No. 91) Download here.

First language first: community-based literacy programmes for minority language contexts in Asia UNESCO Office Bangkok and Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific. 2005. Bangkok, UNESCO Bangkok. Download here.

Literacy for all: making a difference Lind, A. 2008. Paris, UNESCO-IIEP. 147 p. (Fundamentals of Educational Planning, No. 89). Download here.

Mother Tongue-based Literacy Programmes: Case Studies of Good Practice in Asia UNESCO Office Bangkok and Regional Bureau for Education in Asia and the Pacific. 2007. Bangkok, UNESCO Bangkok. Download here.

Literacy, knowledge and development: South-South policy dialogue on quality education for adults and young people Singh, M. and Castro Mussot, L. M. 2007. Hamburg, UIL; Mexico City, INEA. Download here.

Literacy skills for the world of tomorrow: further results from PISA 2000 UNESCO Institute for Statistics, OECD. 2003. Paris, OECD. Download here.

Handbook for literacy and non-formal education facilitators in Africa, 2006. Paris, UNESCO.Download here.

From Closed Books to Open Doors: West Africa’s Literacy Challenge co-authored in 2009 by the African Network Campaign for Education For All (ANCEFA), Pamoja West Africa,, The African Platform for Adult Education,, Oxfam International and ActionAid
Download here.

Early Grade Reading Assessment Toolkit prepared by RTI International for the World Bank Office of Human Development in 2009. Download here.

Update on the Early Grade Reading Assessment Toolkit including use of it/ plans for capacity building and institutionalisation, which is being used in several crisis and post-crisis contexts

Video and power point lecture from Prof: Andreas Schleicher, Head of the Indicators and Analysis division in the OECD Directorate for Education, speaking on Benchmarking International Best Practices, in Washington on July 10, 2009. Download here.

and more related websites:

UNESCO’s International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) provides news, research and information on literacy.

International Reading Association’s website offers a number of excellent resources and tools on literacy:

Teachers Talking About Learning offers a collection of articles, briefings and overviews on the Rights of Children; teaching strategies aligned with a Child-Friendly approach; and overviews on related learning theories.

Proliteracy offers adult literacy programmes in over 50 developing countries. Their website has a number of tools along with an International Literacy blog:

Asia Pacific Literacy Database provides regional, national and subnational literacy and education statistics and policies as well as assessment reports and sample curricula.

The Basic Education Commission raises public and private support for quality basic education as a key element in economic development and human well-being.

Human Rights Education – new documents

The Human Rights Education Association have updated their resource library with some new documents , listed below with their respective links

## LIBRARY: ##

New documents added:

A Human Rights-Based Approach to Programming (United Nations Population Fund and Harvard School of Public Health, 2010). Language(s): English. Keywords: manual, health professionals, humanitarian workers, staff of international organisations, training of professional groups, gender equality, human rights-based approach (HRBA) to programming, reproductive health, right to health, United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). URL:

Child Labour: A textbook for university students (Geneva: International Labour Organization, 2004). Language(s): English. Keywords: textbook, students, graduate, higher education, undergraduate, child labour, international labour standards, Convention concerning Minimum Age for Admission to Employment (ILO Convention N° 138), Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), Convention on the Worst Forms of Child Labour (ILO Convention N° 182). URL:

Gender and SSR Toolkit: Justice Reform and Gender by Shelby Quast (Geneva: Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces, Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights, 2008). Language(s): English, French. Keywords: government officials, judges, lawyers, parliamentarians, public officials, equality before the law, gender equality, gender mainstreaming, international humanitarian law, non-discrimination, violence against women, Convention on the Elimination of All Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), Committee on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination Against Women. URL:

Human Rights Education Core Competencies (HREA, 2010). Language(s): English. Keywords: professors, school administrators, teachers, trainers, formal education, higher education, non-formal education, training of professional groups, curriculum development, human rights education. URL:

Integrating Internal Displacement in Peace Processes and Agreements by Gerard McHugh (Washington, D.C.: Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace and Brookings Institution, 2010). Language(s): English. Keywords: reference, internally displaced persons, peace, Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement. URL:

International Human Rights Law Outreach Program: Project Evaluation Report by Hany Ibrahim (Cairo: School of Continuing Education/American University in Cairo, 2009). Language(s): English. Keywords: evaluation, professors, higher education, human rights education, Egypt. URL:

Materials to explore issues of intercultural understanding and community cohesion for ages 11-18: Teachers’ notes by Don Rowe, Will Ross and Ted Huddleston (London: British Council, 2009). Language(s): English. Keywords: esson unit(s), teachers, trainers, formal education, secondary school, citizenship education, migrant workers, minority rights. URL:

Protecting Ourselves and Each Other (Bantwana Initiative and FXB – Uganda, Kampala, 2010). Language(s): English. Keywords: pupils, social workers, students, youth, informal education, primary school, child labour, children’s rights, right to education, rights of the child, Uganda. URL:

Refugees: A Canadian Perspective—Teacher’s Guide (Ottawa: United Nations Association of Canada, 2001). Language(s): English. Keywords: teacher guide, teachers, formal education, primary school, secondary school, refugees, Canada. URL:

Sierra Leone’s Truth & Reconciliation Commission and Special Court: A Citizen’s Handbook by Paul James-Allen, Sheku B.S. Lahai, and Jamie O’Connell (Freetown and New York: National Forum for Human Rights and International Centre for Transitional Justice, 2003). Language(s): English. Keywords: handbook, community leaders, NGO staff, religious leaders, conflict transformation, criminal justice, equality before the law, impunity, independence of judiciary, rule of law, torture, Special Court for Sierra Leone, Sierra Leone. URL:

Teaching and Dissemination of Human Rights Instruments on the Protection of Refugees (Paris: UNESCO, 1978). Language(s): English. Keywords: report, public officials, higher education, human rights education, internally displaced persons, refugees, UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). URL:

REPORT: Field Notes – Education in Conflict and Transition Contexts

From the latest Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies Bi-Weekly Bulletin

REPORT: Field Notes – Education in Conflict and Transition Contexts
This Field Note outlines UNICEF’s role in providing education in conflict affected contexts. It presents recent developments in this field and discusses lessons learned and good practice based on our experience.

Walking to school - ray harris

Country case studies illustrates some of the innovative approaches UNICEF is using to ensure that children have continued access to education during and after conflicts and crises.

The case studies look at Schools as Zones of Peace in Nepal, the Go to School Initiative in Southern Sudan and school provision and capacity building interventions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
To download the full report click here.

REPORT: Promoting Quality Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children

From the latest   Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies Bi-Weekly Bulletin

REPORT: Promoting Quality Education for Orphans and Vulnerable Children


As the number of orphans and vulnerable children grows, their communities become less and less capable of addressing all their basic needs, including their ability to go to school.

The goal of this report was to document interventions taking place throughout Eastern and Southern Africa that show promise of helping young people achieve their educational goals.

To download the full report click here.

Accelerating progress towards all the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015 -report.

Newly published in Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies Bi-Weekly Bulletin

EVENT: United Nations MDG Summit

Date: September 20-22Location: United Nations Headquarters, New York, NY The United Nations will convene a MDG summit to help accelerate progress towards all the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by 2015.
The summit will review the progress made towards the internationally agreed development goals and is expected to review the successes, best practices and lessons learned, obstacles and gaps, challenges and opportunities, “leading to concrete strategies for action.”
The latest draft of the MDG Outcome document highlights the critical steps that must be taken to achieve each goal by 2015.

Page 11 highlights MDG 2 on primary education and page 12 highlights MDG 3 on gender parity in education.

To access the MDG Outcome document click here.