New Year’s Resolution – click and give

New Years Resolutions -can become New Year’s Revolutions for some!

With little time but a will to take action, no matter how small there is a growing list of ‘click and give’ sites where charity sponsors provide a site where people just have to click a button and the sponsor will do the rest.

Seems simple but if it provides a little help somewhere then its worth a try along with all the other things we do.

How it works: The original of these is the TheHungerSite. Go there, click the special link on the homepage and it’s prominently-displayed sponsors donate a cup of staple foodstuff to someone starving.

Others: There’s also TheBreastCancerSite, Your click on the “Click Here to Give – it’s FREE” button helps fund free mammograms for women in need — low-income, inner-city and minority women whose awareness of breast cancer and opportunity for help is often limited. Your click is paid for by site sponsors, and mammogram funding is provided to clinics throughout the U.S. through the efforts of the National Breast Cancer Foundation.

TheLiteracySite .

On average, over 80,000 individuals from around the world visit the site each day to click the “Click Here to Give – it’s FREE” button. To date, more than 87 million visitors have helped provide more than 1.6 million books to children who need them the most.

Full info in the Guide: Feed The Starving for Free

Or what about volunteering?

What about going a little more green in 2010: check out treehugger

Readers’ International Day of Climate Action Photos
Readers’ Composting & Vermicomposting Systems
Readers’ Best Refashioned Clothing Projects
Readers’ Commuter Bike Photos
Readers’ Most Interesting Farmers Market Finds
Readers’ Edible Container Gardens
Readers’ Eco-Vacation Photos: Hiking, Biking, Camping, and More


and while staying green -what about  cutting your own carbon emissions by 10% during 2010?

10:10 is an ambitious project to unite every sector of British society behind one simple idea: that by working together we can achieve a 10% cut in the UK’s carbon emissions in 2010.

and schools can join in too-

Joining 10:10 makes your school or university part of the solution to climate change. The aim is to reduce emissions by 10% in one year – or as close as you can get. By reducing emissions you’ll be cutting costs and at the same time leading the way on the defining issue of our age.

For more ways to get involved, join up to the 10:10 Schools Ning and get help and advice cutting your school’s carbon emissions.

The 10:10 Schools Ning is a good source of further information and if you post a question, other people in the e-community can help answer it. As well as experienced teachers and headteachers, there are energy experts and other experts who can help you cut your carbon.

You can also request free 10:10 stickers, checklists and buy 10:10 tags through our delivery partner

To request free stickers and checklist please email

To buy tags please go to the ActionAid shop at


So what is the deal on climate change? – results of COP15

BBC news provided the key points of the less than unanimous deal

Copenhagen deal: Key points

A US-led initiative called the Copenhagen Accord has formed the centre-piece of a deal at UN climate talks in Copenhagen, despite some countries’ opposition.

Below is an explanation of the main points in the agreement.

LEGAL STATUSThe Accord, reached between the US, China, India, Brazil and South Africa, contains no reference to a legally binding agreement, as some developing countries and climate activists wanted.

Neither is there a deadline for transforming it into a binding deal, though UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon said it needed to be turned into a legally binding treaty next year.

The accord was merely “recognised” by the 193 nations at the Copenhagen summit, rather than approved, which would have required unanimous support. It is not clear whether it is a formal UN deal.

TEMPERATURE RISEThe text recognises the need to limit global temperatures rising no more than 2C (3.6F) above pre-industrial levels.

The language in the text shows that 2C is not a formal target, just that the group “recognises the scientific view that” the temperature increase should be held below this figure.

However, the accord does not identify a year by which carbon emissions should peak, a position resisted by some richer developing nations.

Countries are asked to spell out by 1 February next year their pledges for curbing carbon emissions by 2020. The deal does not spell out penalties for any country that fails to meet its promise.

FINANCIAL AIDThe deal promises to deliver $30bn (£18.5bn) of aid for developing nations over the next three years. It outlines a goal of providing $100bn a year by 2020 to help poor countries cope with the impacts of climate change.

The accord says the rich countries will jointly mobilise the $100bn, drawing on a variety of sources: “public and private, bilateral and multilateral, including alternative sources of finance.”

A green climate fund will also be established under the deal. It will support projects in developing countries related to mitigation, adaptation, “capacity building” and technology transfer.

EMISSIONS TRANSPARENCYThe pledges of rich countries will come under “rigorous, robust and transparent” scrutiny under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).

In the accord, developing countries will submit national reports on their emissions pledges under a method “that will ensure that national sovereignty is respected.”

Pledges on climate mitigation measures seeking international support will be recorded in a registry.

REVIEW OF PROGRESSThe implementation of the Copenhagen Accord will be reviewed by 2015. This will take place about a year-and-a-half after the next scientific assessment of the global climate by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

However, if, in 2015, delegates wanted to adopt a new, lower target on global average temperature, such as 1.5C rather than 2C, it would be too late.

Climate Change futures – the world in 2095



Now that the political machinations have reached a hiatus at the end of COP15  -It is worth looking at the BBCs Heat Maps as temperature targets of 1.5 and 2 degrees C were mentioned.

An average global temperature rise of 2C will cause major problems in many parts of the world, but is considered relatively safe compared with the impacts associated with a rise of 4C.

And what about sea levels….

The majority of the current global average sea level rise of about 3mm each year is from the thermal expansion of the oceans.

As greenhouse gases become more concentrated, more heat energy is trapped in the atmosphere. This energy is absorbed by the world’s oceans, causing it to warm and expand.


Another contributor is melt water from mountain glaciers. Data shows that, on average, snow and ice cover in the world’s mountain ranges have declined.

The run-off increases the volume of water flowing into rivers and lakes, which in turn ends up in the seas.

One of the latest assessments suggest that sea levels are likely to rise by about 1.4m (4ft 6in) globally by 2100 as polar ice melts.

However, there are big question marks over how much the vast polar ice sheets, which have the potential to have a catastrophic impact, will contribute to future sea level rise.

The world’s three ice sheets – Greenland, West Antarctic and East Antarctic – are vast bodies of ice, containing billions of tonnes of frozen water.

At present, their contribution to average sea level rise is relatively small. However, they are projected to become key drivers.

In its benchmark Fourth Assessment Report (AR4), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) projected a sea level rise of up to 43cm by 2100.

However, it acknowledged that it could not predict how the ice sheets would respond to a warming world.

Leading up to the publication of the AR4, researchers had gathered evidence of glaciers in Greenland and parts of the Antarctic were flowing more quickly, feeding more ice into the oceans, which could translate into faster sea level rise.

Since 2007, there have been more much more research into the dynamics of the ice sheets, resulting in a number of updated projections.

By the end of the century, it projected, the sheet will probably have lost enough ice alone to raise sea levels globally by “tens of centimetres”.

It added that the Antarctic Peninsula – the strip of land that points towards the southern tip of South America – has warmed by about 3C over the last 50 years, the fastest rise seen anywhere in the southern hemisphere.

But the rest of the continent has remained largely immune from the global trend of rising temperatures.

Indeed, the continent’s largest portion, East Antarctica, appears to have cooled, bringing a 10% increase in the sea ice extent since 1980.

Other observers project a global average sea level increase of about one metre by 2100.

But there is a scientific consensus that the IPCC’s 2007 projection of 43cm was too conservative.

However, for many people the debate over the extent of future rises are academic.

Leaders of small island nations – especially in the South Pacific – are fearful for the fate of their populations.

Even a small increase will result in the small islands disappearing beneath the waves.

Continue on the BBC site to look at how water resources may be limited during the next century…

Deal or no deal? Climate Change -COP15 -day 12

From the cop15 website

COP15 – day 12 roundup

The last day of the UN climate conference in Copenhagen ended with a group of countries including the US and China agreeing a deal which the EU early Saturday described as “not perfect” but “better than no deal”.

Michael von Bülow 19/12/2009 02:10

EU: “The only deal available in Copenhagen”

While the head of China’s climate delegation thought “everyone should be happy”, it was uncertain late Friday night whether the “Copenhagen Accord” agreed by the US, China, South Africa and India would win broader support among countries. Read more

US, China, India and South Africa reach deal

According to a senior Obama administration official the United States, China, India and South Africa have reached a “meaningful agreement” on climate change Friday evening. Read more

New draft for Copenhagen deal

In a newly written draft named the “Copenhagen Accord” a 2010-deadline for reaching a legally binding climate treaty has been dropped, Reuters reported Friday afternoon. Read more

Chávez felt excluded

Venezuela’s President Hugo Chávez criticized the UN climate conference for “a real lack of transparency”. Read more

EU challenges US and China

The European Union makes clear it is ready to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by 30 percent by 2020 compared to 1990 levels – if the US and China “do their part”. Read more

Obama: I came here to act

“Our ability to take collective action is in doubt,” US President Barack Obama warned the plenary at COP15. Read more

Brazil ready to provide funding

As the first developing country, Brazil offers to contribute to the finance mechanisms under the Kyoto Protocol – if an agreement is reached in Copenhagen Friday, says President Lula. Read more

World leaders in last-minute climate talks

The UN climate talks were in serious disarray Friday, prompting President Barack Obama to upend his schedule and hold close-door talks with 19 other world leaders to work out a last-minute agreement on fighting global warming. Read more

China and India signal progress on transparency

The world’s two largest emerging economies both respond positively to a call from US Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton. “We are 75 percent underway with a solution,” says Indian minister. Read more

URGENT ACTION – Save the Climate Change talks from ‘failing’

The Copenhagen summit to stop the climate crisis is at risk of failing. Only massive public pressure can save it.

Over the year, TckTckTck have been working with over 250 global NGO’s. Over 12 million people have already come together in nearly every country on earth to show their support for a climate deal, now. Please sign our giant petition. If you’ve already signed, now is the time to forward it to all your friends. We need to get to 15 million supporters by the weekend to make leaders listen.

Today, the world’s leaders have arrived for an unprecedented 60 hours of direct negotiations. Experts agree that without a tidal wave of public pressure for a deal, the summit will not stop catastrophic global warming of 2 degrees.

Click here to sign the petition for a real deal in Copenhagen —  we already have a staggering 12 million supporters – let’s make it the largest petition in history in the next 72 hours! Every single name is actually being read out at the summit — sign on and be part of history. Forward this email to everyone!

Our partners have teams meeting daily with negotiators inside the summit who will organize a spectacular petition delivery to world leaders as they arrive, building a giant wall of boxes of names and reading out the names of every person who signs. With the largest petition in history, leaders will have no doubt that the whole world is watching.

Millions watched our vigil inside the summit on TV on the weekend, where Archbishop Desmond Tutu told hundreds of delegates and assembled children:

“We marched in Berlin, and the wall fell.
We marched for South Africa, and apartheid fell.
We marched at Copenhagen — and we WILL get a Real Deal.”

Copenhagen is seeking the biggest mandate in history to stop the greatest threat humanity has ever faced. History will be made in the next few days. How will our children remember this moment? Let’s tell them we did all we could.

Please sign the petition, or at any number of our partner’s websites including Avaaz, Oxfam, Greenpeace (who are running campaigns in over two dozen countries), and dozens of others. Use our tell-a-friend tool, or spread the word on Facebook, Twitter, or your other social networks.

If you’ve been waiting for the one thing you can do that might impact the negotiations, this is it!

Children Affected by Armed Conflict – Applicable Rules?

Sometimes when you read accounts of wars and armed conflict in many places, you cannot imagine that there are any ‘rules’ that troops abide by during such conflicts. If there are any rules – are they applied and who polices them? Well there is some good news – International Humanitarian Law is continually being developed and can be applied through the International Courts. INEE has added the article below in its bi-weekly newsletter:

PUBLICATION: The UN Security Council’s Monitoring and Reporting Mechanism on Children Affected by Armed Conflict – Applicable Rules of International Humanitarian Law


This working paper aims to present the legal framework under international humanitarian law and related instruments applicable to the UN Security Council’s monitoring and reporting mechanism (MRM) on children affected by armed conflict. This mechanism monitors and reports on the six grave violations against children committed by parties to armed conflict. The six grave violations form the basis of the Security Council’s architecture in protecting children during war and include:

  1. Killing or maiming of children
  2. Recruitment or use of children as soldiers
  3. Rape and other grave sexual abuse of children
  4. Abduction of children
  5. Attacks against schools or hospitals
  6. Denial of humanitarian access for children

The working paper provides detailed information on each of the six grave violations.  Further, the report details the rights afforded to civilians, in specific children, in situations of conflict under international humanitarian law.

For access to the complete report, please click here.

And some more news about war and law,again from INEE:

ARTICLE: The Ambiguous Protection of Schools Under the Law of War – Time For Parity With Hospitals and Religious Buildings

(Gregory Raymond Bart)

An article in the Georgetown Journal of International Law by Gregory Raymond Bart addresses the disparate treatment of schools compared to hospitals and religious buildings under the law of war. According to Bart, a disturbing trend during recent armed conflicts has been the propensity to treat school buildings less respectively than hospitals and religious buildings. One important cause of this trend is the different privileged status afforded to each building type under the law of war.

The law of war equally forbids targeting hospitals, religious buildings, schools, and other civilian buildings unless they become justifiable military objectives. But ironically, it fails to equally protect these buildings from being used for such objectives in the first place. Under the law of war’s privileges for civilian hospitals and most religious buildings, armed forces cannot use these buildings for military purposes ­­– without exception. However, in contrast, according to the law of war schools are allowed to be used for military purposes if necessary. This is surprising because military use results in a school being transformed from being a protected site into a justifiable target for an opposing army. Even more troubling, such use increases the likelihood that an opposing army will confuse converted and unconverted schools and wrongfully attack one that shelters children and other civilians.

Bart identifies three critical issues that affect attempts by regimes to establish privileged status for a specific type of building during war: 1) defining which buildings qualify; 2) ensuring maintenance of privileged status by prohibiting their military use; and 3) ensuring their recognition by armed forces. Bart concludes that the law of war has evolved over the past century to better protect hospitals and religious buildings by addressing these issues. The current privilege for schools needs to similarly evolve. Most importantly, it should prohibit armies from using school buildings for military purposes.

For access to the full article, please click here.

Further resources on this topic can be found on the INEE blog here:

UN Climate Change Conference – Free Disaster Risk Reduction Resources

INEE has done it again  -providing comprehensive support resources for activities to reach the most vulnerable.

The fifteenth United Nations climate change conference (COP15)  is taking place from December 7 to 18 in Copenhagen, Denmark. Government leaders and scientists from nearly 200 nations will gather to discuss carbon emissions curbs, clean energy and other issues related to the global environment.

We’d like to take this opportunity to highlight the fact that natural disasters are increasing in frequency and intensity. The average number of natural disasters has increased from 200 a year to more than 400 today, and this is predicted to increase by as much as 320 percent in the next 20 years.

Save the Children estimates that over the next decade 175 million children per year will be affected by these disasters. As disaster risk reduction is a first step in helping communities to adapt to increasingly intense and frequent natural disasters, child-centered risk reduction should be a cornerstone of climate change adaptation. The INEE network advocates that members work to meet the goals of Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) through education by:

  • Creating safe learning environments with safe construction and retrofitting
  • Maintaining safe learning environments through school disaster management
  • Protecting access to education with educational continuity planning
  • Learning and teaching about disaster prevention and preparedness in formal and non-formal environments
  • Building a culture of access and safety; promoting schools as centers for community risk reduction

INEE is mainstreaming disaster risk reduction and risk management into its work and resources through the following initiatives and good practice tools:

  • INEE Minimum Standards Training Materials focused on DRR: INEE has adapted its training documents, the INEE Minimum Standards Training Guide and Trainers Workbook, with a focus on DRR. These materials, designed for a 3-day training but adaptable for other durations, can be used to guide policy makers and practitioners to better understand and integrate disaster risk reduction into their work, including contextualising the INEE Minimum Standards and other tools toward this goal.
  • INEE Guidance Notes on Safer School Construction provide a framework of guiding principles and general steps to develop a context-specific plan for safer school construction and/or retrofitting initiative.  Click here to download the Guidance Notes in English. Click here to download the User’s Guide and Feedback Form, which provides talking points on what the guidance notes are, why they are important, who should use them, how they should be used, and how you can provide feedback to improve them.

Specific tools and resources (INEE)

TOOL: Disaster Prevention for Schools


This guidance document is for school administrators, teachers, education authorities and school safety committees. It reviews strategies for disaster prevention for schools; creating and maintaining safe learning environments; teaching and learning disaster prevention and preparedness, educational materials and teacher training, and developing a culture of safety.

TOOL:  Child Friendly Schools Infrastructure Standards and Guidelines

(Ministry of Education, Rwanda)

This document outlines the infrastructure standards which are expected to be meet by all Primary and Tronc Commun schools in the Republic of Rwanda. Through this document the Ministry of Education of Rwanda sets clear standards and gives practical guidance on how to achieve them. These standards have been developed through a comprehensive consultation process with the school communities including head teachers, staff members and pupils. Then these concerns were further developed through technical expert review process where many specialists from organizations have contributed. The draft was then presented at regional and national consultation meeting where directors of education, head teachers and teachers from public and private schools gathered to give their inputs. It is with all these inputs that a Rwanda-specific standard and guidelines were able to be drafted.
TOOL: Integrating Disaster Risk Reduction into School Curriculum

(The Regional Consultative Committee on Disaster Management)

These guidelines were developed to guide member countries in introducing and integrating DRR into school curricula. It shares good practices from several countries, from highlighting key approaches to mainstreaming DRR into the curricula to articulating suggesting steps for priority partnerships. The tool also highlights long term activities that are essential to institutionalization.

OECD: Draft Policy Handbook on Natural Hazard Awareness and Disaster Risk Reduction Education

(Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)

The growing impact of natural hazards on OECD and non-member economies has stimulated a demand for an in-depth evaluation of possible strategies to reduce their large-scale damaging effects. In both developed and emerging countries, the rise in direct and indirect costs of disasters is caused by several factors, most of which are human-induced. The increased vulnerability and exposure of people and assets to natural perils are, in significant part, due to the growing concentration of people and values in conurbations, inadequate land-use zoning and planning, inadequate construction standards, environmental degradation, the inability to adapt to climate change, and an insufficient level of disaster risk preparedness.  This handbook is aimed at providing policy guidance in the field of natural hazard awareness and disaster risk reduction education to OECD and non-member governments.

ARTICLES: Child’s Right to a Safer School: Lessons from Asia

In any disaster situation anywhere in the world-be it a human induced or natural-children are among the most vulnerable groups.  At the same time, there are many unheard/unpublished stories of children dead due to both human-induced and natural disasters.  The following journal on school safety was designed as a special issue for the Asian Conference for Disaster Reduction in 2007. In this issue readers will find several articles with direct reference to all aspects of school safety, such as: Society’s Responsibility: Safer Schools, A Community-based Approach for School Safety and Education for Disaster Reduction, and Let Our Children Teach Us!

WEBSITE: Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project (CDMP): School/Shelter Hazard Vulnerability Reduction Resource Page:

(Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project)

The Caribbean Disaster Mitigation Project has constructed this webpage with several resources on school safety, including on the importance and vulnerability of school buildings, steps to reduce the vulnerability of school buildings, the maintenance of school buildings and how to take the initiative to move forward projects and policies.  The web page also includes links directing users towards crucial information and organizations involved in the school safety and DRR.

WEBSITE: School Safety and Security: (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development)

The Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) has established a new page on their website for ‘School Safety and Security.’  OECD states that, “a safe and secure environment is a prerequisite for effective teaching and learning. Threats to the safety and security of people and property can arise from natural hazards – for example earthquake, floods and storms – or from human actions – such as vandalism, arson, and violent crime. While catastrophic events and human tragedies cannot be eliminated entirely, there is a role for facility designers, institutional managers, emergency response teams, and post-crisis intervention in mitigating their negative impact.”  On this webpage users can locate current resources on safer school construction along with upcoming events and other pertinent information regarding school safety.

Further resources relevant to climate change and humanitarian response (INEE):
REPORT: Feeling the Heat – Child Survival in a Changing Climate
(Save the Children)

Save the Children’s new report states that climate change is a real threat to children in the 21st century and is an immediate global emergency. Children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change and adaptation therefore must involve children and support interventions responding to their needs and priorities. Within the context of climate change, access to education is a critical issue.  Women in affected communities identify education as an essential strategy to help their children adapt to the effects of climate change in the long term. In addition, education is vital for empowerment and for maternal, newborn and child survival. Nonetheless, girls’ access to education during conflict or natural disasters can be severely reduced. Girls are the first to be taken out of school to support their families, carry out household chores or work to bring in extra income. As these situations intensify and become more frequent as a result of climate change, girls’ access to education could be further compromised. Women and children must be consulted and involved in strategies to adapt to climate change. Women show exceptional leadership and are the first to make changes in their communities and for their children to reduce disaster risk as well as adapt to climate change. Unless women are involved in decision-making, leadership and implementation, efforts to reduce the risks associated with disasters and climate change are unlikely to succeed.

The report also advocates for investment in child focused DRR. It asserts that activities undertaken before the onset of a natural disaster can build people’s resilience to shocks and help ensure that children and their families are as prepared as they can be. The report notes that the proliferation of natural disasters – including small-scale, climate-related events – will challenge the humanitarian system’s ability to respond. In order to meet increased needs, aid must be swift and well targeted, and donors must ensure that staff on the ground are in a position to scale up quickly. Wherever possible, it will be crucial to help communities prepare for and respond to the increasingly frequent threat of disaster.

REPORT: Climate Change, Conflict and Fragility
(International Alert)

Just under three billion people live in 46 conflict-affected countries where climate change could create a high risk of violent conflict, according to International Alert’s 2007 report, A Climate of Conflict.  Its new report Climate Change, Conflict and Fragility urges policy-makers to take into account the interaction between the impact of climate change and the social and political realities in which people live that will determine their capacity to adapt.The political dimension of adapting to climate change, and the underlying causes of vulnerability in a state unable to carry out its core functions, has to be factored in. In particular, the report recommends that adaptation to climate change be conflict sensitive, responding to the needs of the people, involving them in consultation, taking account of power distribution and social order and avoiding pitting groups against each other. It also recommends that greater efforts be taken to plan for and cope peacefully with climate-related migration.

REPORT: Future floods of refugees – climate change, conflict and forced migration

This report asserts that climate and environmental issues are among the underlying causes of migration, and that climate change can trigger conflict and displacement. It deals with the form and scope of future displacement in addition to protection and preventive measures. The report recommends that climate change adaptation in developing countries be given priority together with mitigation and emission-reducing measures. Financial resources must be made available to countries that bear the consequences of forced migration related to climate change.

REPORT:  Monitoring Disaster Displacement in the Context of Climate Change

To date, there have been no reliable estimates on forced displacement driven by climate change related disasters, nor a methodology for making such estimates.  This study provides for the first time a reliable estimate of the scale of forced displacement caused by rapid-onset natural disasters in 2008, with a special focus on climate related disasters and proposes a methodology to monitor disaster-related displacement on an ongoing basis. It looks at natural disasters and forced displacement in the context of climate change in order to provide an estimate of forced displacement related to disasters in 2008, specifically climate-related disasters; and secondly, to propose a methodology that could be applied to monitor disaster-related displacement on an ongoing basis. The findings show that at least 36 million people were displaced by sudden-onset natural disasters in 2008. Of those, over 20 million were displaced by sudden-onset climate-related disasters. As a reference, the total population of people living in forced displacement due to conflict, including IDPs and refugees, was 42 million in 2008, with 4.6 million having been newly internally displaced during the year. It is likely that many more are displaced due to the other climate change-related drivers, including slow-onset disasters, such as drought and sea level rise; however the study does not present an estimate of their number.

EPORT: Addressing the Humanitarian Challenges of Climate Change Regional and National Perspectives: Preliminary Findings from the IASC Regional and National Level Consultations

Climate change is one of the major global challenges for humanity in the 21st century; and yet it is only in the last few years that the human face of climate change – the socioeconomic and humanitarian dimension – has been fully acknowledged. While climate change has global repercussions, the most vulnerable communities will experience the greatest impacts from climate and disaster risk; climate change is threatening the lives and livelihoods of these communities, eroding their resilience and undermining opportunities for sustainable development. As a result, climate change threatens to overwhelm the current capacity of the humanitarian system to respond effectively by increasing hazards, vulnerabilities and response costs.  Addressing climate change demands a multi-faceted and coordinated response at all levels. This document represents the initial outcomes of the first round of regional and country level consultations, including stocktaking and an overview of the challenges, opportunities and next steps.

ARTICLES: Forced Migration Review 31: Climate change and displacement
(Forced Migration Review)

In response to growing pressures on landscapes and livelihoods, people are moving, communities are adapting. This issue of FMR debates the numbers, the definitions and the modalities – and the tension between the need for research and the need to act. Thirty-eight articles by UN, academic, international and local actors explore the extent of the potential displacement crisis, community adaptation and coping strategies, and the search for solutions. The issue also includes a range of articles on other aspects of forced migration.

POLICY PAPER: Climate Change and Adaptation Response: Principles and approaches for field programs

This policy paper articulates principles and approaches for field programs in response to climate change and adaptation.  It highlights that the number of disasters and disaster-affect­ed people grew from 1.6 billion in 1984-1993 to 2.6 bil­lion in 1994-2003 but that despite the increasing frequen­cy of disaster events and growing numbers of at-risk people, investments in disaster management have reduced deaths. Up-front investment in adaptation mea­sures will greatly reduce the impending costs of climate change. The principles, challenges and strategies highlighted are relevant to education programming.

WEBSITE and REPORT: Second Session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction

This website documents proceedings and outcome of the second session of the Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction, including a report on the proceedings, which took place in Geneva, Switzerland from 16-19 June 2009. The Chair’s Summary and documents on the outcomes, including recommendations from National Platforms, Parliamentarians, the ISDR Management Oversight Board and on climate change adaptation, gender, youth engagement in disaster risk reduction. There are also reports specific to education, such as from the Roundtable on Risk Round Table 4: Risk Reduction Education